The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a document that marks a milestone in the history of human rights. Drawn up by representatives from all regions of the world with different legal and cultural backgrounds, the Declaration was proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly in Paris, on December 10, 1948, in its ( Resolution 217 A (III) ) as an ideal common to all peoples and nations. The Declaration establishes, for the first time, the fundamental human rights that must be protected throughout the world and have been translated into more than 500 languages. The UDHR is widely recognized as having inspired and paved the way for the adoption of more than seventy human rights treaties, which are now permanently applied at the global and regional levels (all contain references to it in their preambles).
Considering that freedom, justice, and peace in the world are based on the recognition of the intrinsic dignity and the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family;
Considering that the disregard and contempt for human rights have given rise to acts of barbarism that are outrageous to the conscience of humanity and that the advent of a world in which human beings, liberated from fear and misery, enjoy the freedom of speech and freedom of belief;
Considering it essential that human rights be protected by a rule of law, so that man is not compelled to the supreme resort of rebellion against tyranny and oppression;
Considering also essential to promote the development of friendly relations among nations;
Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have reaffirmed in the Charter their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person, and in the equal rights of men and women, and have resolved to promote social progress and raise the standard of living within a broader concept of freedom;
Considering that the member states have committed to ensuring, in cooperation with the United Nations, universal and effective respect for the fundamental rights and freedoms of man, and
Considering that a common conception of these rights and freedoms is of the utmost importance for the full fulfillment of said commitment;
The general assembly,
Proclaims this Universal Declaration of Human Rights as a common ideal for which all peoples and nations should strive, so that both individuals and institutions, constantly inspired by it, promote, through teaching and education, respect to these rights and freedoms, and ensure, through progressive national and international measures, their universal and effective recognition and application, both among the peoples of the Member States and among those of the territories under their jurisdiction.
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights and, endowed as they are with reason and conscience, they must behave towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind as to race, color, sex, language, religion, political or another opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or any other status. In addition, no distinction shall be made based on the political, legal, or international status of the country or territory on whose jurisdiction a person depends, whether it is an independent country, a territory under trusteeship, non-self-governing, or subject to any other limitation of sovereignty.
Every individual has the right to life, liberty, and security of his person.
No one will be subjected to slavery or servitude, slavery and the slave trade are prohibited in all their forms.
No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
Every human being has the right, everywhere, to the recognition of his legal personality.
All are equal before the law and have, without distinction, the right to equal protection of the law. Everyone is entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.
Every person has the right to an effective remedy before the competent national courts, which protects them against acts that violate their fundamental rights recognized by the constitution or by law.
No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.
Every person has the right, in conditions of full equality, to be heard publicly and fairly by an independent and impartial court, for the determination of their rights and obligations or for the examination of any accusation against them in criminal matters.
1. Every person accused of a crime has the right to be presumed innocent until proven guilty, in accordance with the law and in a public trial in which all the necessary guarantees for his defense have been assured.
2. No one will be convicted for acts or omissions that were not criminal under national or international law at the time they were committed. Nor will a heavier penalty be imposed than the one applicable at the time the crime was committed.
No one shall be the object of arbitrary interference with his private life, his family, his home or his correspondence, nor of attacks on his honor or reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.
1. Every person has the right to move freely and choose their residence in the territory of a State.
2. Every person has the right to leave any country, including his own de ella, and to return to his country de ella.
1. In case of persecution, everyone has the right to seek asylum, and enjoy it, in any country.
2. This right may not be invoked against a legal action actually originating from common crimes or from acts contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.
1. Every person has the right to a nationality.
2. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality or the right to change his nationality.
1. Men and women, from the age of marriage, have the right, without any restriction for reasons of race, nationality or religion, to marry and found a family, and shall enjoy equal rights with regard to marriage, during the marriage and in case of dissolution of the marriage.
2. Only with the free and full consent of the future spouses may the marriage be contracted.
3. The family is the natural and fundamental unit of society and is entitled to protection by society and the State.
1. Every person has the right to property, individually and collectively.
2. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his property from him.
Every person has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes the freedom to change his religion or belief, as well as the freedom to manifest his religion or belief, individually and collectively, both in public and in private, through teaching, practice, worship and observance.
Every individual has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes the right not to be bothered because of his opinions of him, to investigate and receive information and opinions, and to disseminate them, without limitation of borders, by any means of expression.
1. Everyone has the right to freedom of peaceful assembly and association.
2. No one may be forced to belong to an association.
1. Everyone has the right to participate in the government of their country, directly or through freely chosen representatives.
2. Every person has the right of access, under equal conditions, to the public functions of their country.
3. The will of the people is the basis of the authority of public power; This will will be expressed through authentic elections that must be held periodically, by universal and equal suffrage and by secret ballot or other equivalent procedure that guarantees the freedom to vote.
Every person, as a member of society, has the right to social security, and to obtain, through national efforts and international cooperation, taking into account the organization and resources of each State, the satisfaction of economic, social and cultural rights. , indispensable to their dignity and the free development of their personality.
1. Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of work, to just and satisfactory working conditions and to protection against unemployment.
2. Everyone has the right, without any discrimination, to equal pay for equal work.
3. Every person who works has the right to a fair and satisfactory remuneration, which ensures him, as well as his family of him, an existence in accordance with human dignity and that will be completed, if necessary, by any other means of social protection.
4. Every person has the right to found trade unions and join unions for the defense of his interests.
Every person has the right to rest, to enjoy free time, to a reasonable limitation of the duration of work and to regular paid vacations.
1. Everyone has the right to an adequate standard of living that ensures health and well-being for himself and his family, and especially food, clothing, housing, medical care and necessary social services; He is also entitled to insurance in case of unemployment, sickness, invalidity, widowhood, old age or other cases of loss of his means of subsistence due to circumstances beyond his control.
2. Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special care and assistance. All children, born in or out of wedlock, are entitled to equal social protection.
1. Every person has the right to education. Education must be free, at least with regard to elementary and fundamental instruction. Elementary instruction will be mandatory. The technical and professional instruction will have to be generalized; access to higher education will be the same for all, based on the respective merits.
2. Education shall aim at the full development of the human personality and the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms; it will promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations and all ethnic or religious groups, and will promote the development of United Nations activities for the maintenance of peace.
3. Parents will have a preferential right to choose the type of education that will be given to their children.
1. Every person has the right to freely take part in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to participate in scientific progress and in the benefits that result from it.
2. Every person has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests that correspond to him by reason of the scientific, literary or artistic productions of which he is the author.
Everyone has the right to a social and international order in which the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration can be fully realized.
1. Every person has duties towards the community, since only in it can he freely and fully develop his personality.
2. In the exercise of their rights and in the enjoyment of their freedoms, every person will only be subject to the limitations established by law for the sole purpose of ensuring the recognition and respect of the rights and freedoms of others, and of meeting the just demands of morality, public order and general welfare in a democratic society.
3. These rights and freedoms may not, in any case, be exercised contrary to the purposes and principles of the United Nations.
Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted in the sense that it confers any right to the State, to a group or to an individual, to undertake and carry out activities or carry out acts tending to the suppression of any of the rights and freedoms proclaimed in this Declaration.